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時間:2022-08-16 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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双语热点:小行星撞地球,普通人要担心吗?******

美国航天局“双小行星重定向测试(DART)”航天器24日从加利福尼亚州发射升空。这是美国航天局首次开展测试小行星轨道偏移技术的任务,旨在提高防御小行星撞击地球的能力。那么,我们真的应该担心小行星撞地球这样的事情发生吗?

Space rock alert: Should you worry about an asteroid impact?

NASA is testing one technique it might use should a large asteroid threaten to collide with Earth. But just how high are the odds of such a dangerous space rock after all? You don't need to panic.

美国宇航局正在测试一项新技术,如果一颗小行星有与地球相撞的危险,它可能会派上用场。但究竟遭遇这种危险的小行星几率有多大?其实你不必恐慌。

The newly-launched Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART, is designed to test whether hitting an asteroid with a spacecraft can alter the rock's trajectory enough to avoid a predicted collision with the Earth, given enough lead time. The DART mission will target Dimorphos, which is a satellite of a larger asteroid called Didymos. There's no chance of the pair hitting Earth no matter how the NASA probe fares, according to mission personnel.

这个被称为“双小行星重定向测试任务”(DART)的航天器,旨在测试在足够的提前期的情况下,用航天器撞击小行星是否可以改变它的轨迹,以避免与地球发生可能的碰撞。 DART 任务将瞄准一颗名为Dimorphos的小行星,它是一颗名为 Didymos 的更大小行星的卫星。据工作人员介绍,无论美国宇航局的探测器的撞击结果如何,这对小行星都不会对地球构成威胁。

So Didymos and Dimorphos don't pose a threat — but are asteroid impacts something most people need to worry about? The answer, as with many things, is "it's complicated."

所以 Didymos 和 Dimorphos 不会构成威胁——但小行星撞地球是我们普通人需要担心的吗?与许多事情一样,答案是“这很复杂”。

Countless tiny impacts

无数微小的撞击

First off, the question isn't whether an asteroid will smash into the Earth: Not only has it happened before, but it happens pretty routinely.

首先,问题不在于小行星是否会撞击地球:它不仅以前发生过,而且经常发生。

Small rocks impact all the time — something the size of a small car hits Earth's atmosphere about once a year, according to NASA, but objects of that size burn up in the atmosphere and explode well before they hit the ground.

小行星一直在撞击地球——据美国宇航局称,一块汽车大小的小行星撞向地球,几乎每年都会发生一次,但这种大小的物体会在大气中燃烧并在撞击地面之前爆炸成灰烬。

When this occurs, no one really notices, since these rocks cause what we call meteors — the "shooting stars" we enjoy watching on a dark, clear night. Meteors are produced by meteoroids, which are the actual pieces of asteroid that are burning up. The vast majority of meteoroids are fractions of an inch or a few millimeters across.

当这种情况发生时,没有人真正注意到,因为这些小行星撞击的现象就是我们所谓的流星——我们喜欢在黑暗、晴朗的夜晚观看的“流星”。流星是由流星体产生的,流星体是正在燃烧的小行星的实际碎片。绝大多数流星体的直径只有几分之一英寸或几毫米。

Once in a while, meteoroids are large enough to get deep in the Earth's atmosphere and explode; these objects are called bolides or fireballs. Occasionally a bolide will survive until close enough to Earth's surface that bystanders hear the explosion; some airblasts can damage local homes like a bomb, as happened at the Russian town of Chelyabinsk in 2013.

偶尔,流星体大到足以深入地球大气层并爆炸;这些物体被称为火流星或火球。有时,一个火流星体会足够接近地球表面以至于旁观者可以听到爆炸声;有些爆炸可以像炸弹一样损坏房屋,如2013 年在俄罗斯车里雅宾斯克市的流星坠落事件。

In general, there are a lot more small objects orbiting the sun than large ones, and the progression is roughly logarithmic — for every million sand-grain-size objects, there will be only one that weighs 2 pounds (1 kilogram), and generally there are a trillion tiny meteors for each object in the range of 2,000 pounds (1,000 kg).

总的来说,围绕太阳运行的小天体比大天体多得多,而且其发展过程大致是对数性质的——每百万颗沙粒大小的天体中,只有一颗重2磅(1千克),通常每个天体都有1万亿颗小流星,重量在2000磅(1000千克)范围内。

A small risk of a big impact

小风险大影响

Scientists take a variety of approaches to try to understand the relative risk of a serious asteroid impact on Earth.

科学家们采取多种方法试图了解小行星撞击地球的相对风险。

Consider the most recent larger impacts. In 1908, a large asteroid or comet exploded over Siberia, triggering shock waves that flattened some 750 square miles of forest in what is dubbed the Tunguska event. The next notable impact, over Chelyabinsk, occurred about 100 years later and damaged homes as far as 55 miles (88 kilometers) away on either side of its trajectory. The Chelyabinsk impact caused some 1,200 injuries.

最近的几次产生较大影响的撞击事件有: 1908 年,一颗较大的小行星或彗星在西伯利亚上空爆炸,引发了冲击波,将大约 750 平方英里的森林夷为平地,此次流星撞击事件被称为通古斯事件。另一次较大的撞击发生在大约 100 年后,发生地在俄罗斯车里雅宾斯克,损坏了小行星坠落轨迹55 英里(88 公里)范围内的房屋,并且造成1200人受伤。

Statistics gathered by Clark Chapman at the Southwest Research Institute compare a typical American's risk of dying from various causes. Dying from a global impact, which could be smaller than that of the famous Chicxulub asteroid that ended the reign of the dinosaurs about 66 million years ago? About 1 in 75,000. The chances of dying from a regional impact that doesn't affect the entire Earth are actually smaller, about 1 in 600,000.

西南研究所的克拉克查普曼(Clark Chapman)收集的统计数据表明:一名普通的美国人死于小行星撞击地球的风险大约是75000分之一,可能比大约 6600 万年前结束恐龙统治的著名的希克苏鲁伯小行星的撞击可能性还小?死于不影响整个地球的区域性撞击的几率实际上更小,约为 600,000 分之一。

These are not large odds, but they are actually better than the chances of winning your local Powerball lottery on a specific ticket.

发生这种事件的几率并不大,虽然比赢得强力球彩票的机会要高一些。

However, the chances of being killed in an asteroid impact shouldn't keep you up at night. Chapman, who gathered these numbers in 2007, found that an average American had 1 in 30,000 odds of dying in a plane crash and 1 in 60,000 odds of dying in a tornado; either of those fates is much more likely to be the cause of your demise than an asteroid impact.

然而,在小行星撞击中丧生的机率不应该让你夜不能寐。根据查普曼在 2007 年收集的数据,普通美国人死于飞机失事的几率为 30,000 分之一,死于龙卷风的几率为 60,000 分之一;与小行星撞击相比,这两种厄运中的任何一种都更有可能导致您的死亡。

Or consider COVID-19. Some 770,000 Americans have died of COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The population of the United States is roughly 329 million people, so over the past two years approximately 1 in 427 people have died from the virus. Clearly, COVID-19 is much more likely to kill you than an asteroid impact.

或者看看新冠疫情。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心的数据,自新冠疫情开始以来,约有 770,000 名美国人死于新冠病毒。美国人口约为 3.29 亿,因此在过去两年中,大约每 427 人中就有 1 人死于该病毒。显然,与小行星撞击相比,新冠病毒更有可能杀死您。

The bottom line: you need not worry too much about an asteroid impact compared to many other risks, but it is a longer-term problem that humanity must deal with.

最重要的是:与许多其他风险相比,您不必太担心小行星撞击,但这是人类必须应对的长期问题。

French Catholic Church faces up to child sex abuse report******

AFP。

Catholic bishops kneel on Saturday as a sign of penance during a ceremony at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes towards victims of pedocriminalit in the Church. Their annual meeting began on November 2 in the southwestern French city. The week focused on the Sauve report on child sexual abuse in the Church.。

France's Catholic bishops will announce their plans to prevent child sexual abuse by members of the clergy and compensate the thousands of victims in recent decades.。

The 120 members of the Bishops' Conference of France meeting at the Catholic shrine of Lourdes will decide what measures to take after several days debating their response behind closed doors.。

The vote comes after a landmark inquiry by an independent commission confirmed extensive sexual abuse of minors by priests dating from the 1950s to 2020.。

The 2,500-page report detailed abuse of 216,000 minors by clergy over the period, a number that climbs to 330,000 when claims against lay members of the Church are included, such as teachers at Catholic schools.。

The commission's president denounced the "systemic character" of efforts to shield clergy from prosecution and issued 45 recommendations of corrective measures.。

In particular, the Church was urged to pay reparations even though most cases are well beyond the statute of limitations.。

On Friday, France's bishops for the first time formally recognized that the Church bore an "institutional responsibility" for the abuse, and senior members of the clergy knelt in prayer on Saturday in a show of penance.。

Yesterday's response will be the "concrete translation" of the inquiry's recommendations, Luc Crepy, the bishop of Versailles and president of the CEF committee overseeing the issue, told journalists Sunday.。

Hugues de Woillemont, a CEF spokesman, later assured that all claims of compensation would be examined by a national Church commission, including those dating back decades. It will be presided by a female judge specializing in the protection of minors.。

Bishops are also expected to specify how the compensation fund will be financed, in particular addressing the controversial proposal of asking parishioners to contribute.。

The independent commission called on the Church to instead rely on sales of its extensive real estate holdings across France.。

"If we have to sell property, we will sell it," one bishop said.。

The bishops are also expected to commit to deadlines for implementing the new measures, some of which could require Vatican approval. But compensation is something the Church in France could put in place relatively quickly, and the CEF has already promised that the first payments will be made in 2022.。

Questions of doctrine still appeared to be a problem last month, when the government summoned the Archbishop of Reims, Eric de Moulins-Beaufort.。

He had provoked anger by saying priests were not obliged to report sexual abuse if they heard about it during confession.。

He was later forced to retract his comments.。

Protecting children from sexual abuse is an "absolute priority" for the Church, said the archbishop after meeting Interior Minister Gerald Darmanin at the request of President Emmanuel Macron.。

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第三个采暖季还不可以供热?西安鄠邑区家福华城小区业主很失望******

眼见到第三个供暖季了,好像供暖或是遥遥无期,这让住在西安鄠邑区家福华城小区的刘先生十分心寒。

小区业主:物业管理通告全部居民缴完花费才可以供暖。

11月4日,刘先生体现说,这也是个新小区,交房迟早不一,自身所处的7号楼交房最开始,到今年冬天是第三个供暖季了,自身也早已入驻了2年多,居民们一直盼望着能供上暖气片。他说道,小区是市政工程供暖,供暖企业是大唐官府户县第二电厂,那时候的买房合同上承诺是第二个供暖季供暖,但上年说成住房率不足,因此也没供,2021年搬入的人多了,本认为能顺利地用上暖气片了,想不到,近期物业管理的一纸通告让人垂头丧气。

“物业管理说小区务必有60%的居民交纳全额的供暖费,其他的小区业主交纳30%的闲置费,仅有全部的花费缴完,才能够供暖。”刘先生说,自身早已交了采暖费,但觉得那么的标准过度严苛了,假定全部小区有一户小区业主没交费,难道说小区就完全不供暖了没有?假如确实那样,针对早已缴费的别的小区业主极不合理。他还告知新闻记者,上年房地产商以前服务承诺2021年不管怎样都是会供暖,但事到如今又作何解释。

在刘先生给予的物业管理通告上,物业管理在10月核心公布说,通过小区早期调查摸排,因为4号楼(供暖占有率:13.89%)10号楼公寓楼(供暖占有率:17.86%)搬入占比较低,间距集中化供暖规定最少占比60%差别比较大,没法参加今年冬天供暖;为尽快促进完成本小区今年冬天初次供暖,综合性考虑到将选用分楼幢收费供暖(1#,2#,5#,6#,7#楼)。依据供暖公司通知,依照《<西安集中化供暖规章》实施办法》:“用热总户数做到小区住户楼盘介绍的60%之上,或客户缴纳热费做到应缴纳总热费的60%之上时,给予供暖。”若因用热总户数达不上小区住户楼盘介绍的60%之上,或客户缴纳热费达不上应缴纳总热费的60%之上时,供暖没法一切正常完成时,物业管理核心将开展供暖费退款工作中。

物业管理:收费空缺非常大 不缴完没法供暖。

11月3日,物业管理又公布了供暖费扣除进展,发布了每一栋楼的交费总户数占有率,在其中全额的采暖费实付占有率都是在四五成,闲置户缴费占比仅一两成。通告说:“各栋楼收费进展依然有非常大空缺,截止到11月7日需进行剩下采暖费交纳,如最后收费状况不合格,将没法确保小区今年冬天一切正常供暖。”依据这一通告,刘先生所属的7号楼算较为高,140户中79户全额的交费,17户缴了闲置费,但即便如此,或是达不上供暖的规范,物业管理公司称“全力以赴催款剩下未交纳采暖费。”。

华商报新闻记者从小区物业管理介绍到,小区一共有500多家住户,有两幢楼交房迟住房率低,因而2021年将其清除在供暖以外,依照每幢楼的缴纳率测算,但现阶段收费率或是不足。物业管理表明,这一收费的占比是热力公司的规定,务必花费搜集才可以签署供暖合同书,物业管理也在全力以赴促进,期待能促使2021年小区初次供暖。

刑事辩护律师:规章要求60%之上客户交清用热费用就应供暖。

陕西省华盛法律事务所高级合伙人,著名公益律师赵敬之表明,依据《〈西安市集中供热条例〉实施细则》第十四条要求:“热我们应按时全额向供暖公司交纳应季热费。往季因事未交的热费,应一并付清。具有供暖标准的新创建,改造,改建住户小区,当初申请办理用热总户数做到小区住户楼盘介绍的60%之上,或客户缴纳热费做到应缴纳总热费的60%之上时,供暖公司理应给予供暖。”只需申请办理热客户做到小区总客户60%之上,供暖公司就理应给予供暖,这也是针对热力公司的硬性要求。

赵敬之表明,热力公司规定60%之上居民交清供暖费无可非议,但假如再行规定“其他小区业主所有交清30%闲置费”即可供暖,就归属于在法律法规外开展附加附带条件,显而易见是不科学,也不是合理合法的。依据西安供暖法律法规,只需60%之上客户交清用热费用并申请办理用热,不管别的无需热小区业主是不是交清闲置费,热力公司都应供暖。

华商报新闻记者 李琳。


来源于:华商网-华商报。

编写:报刊社方方正正。

安徽石台牯牛降 皖南小九寨,冷门又美爆 五一小长假来这里准没错!******

原标题:安徽石台牯牛降 皖南小九寨,冷门又美爆 五一小长假来这里准没错!

在安徽南部的大山深处,隐匿着这样一个好地方:那里有着华东地区最后一片原始森林;那里群山连绵、峰峦叠翠、云雾缭绕,人称现实版的"世外桃源",皖南“小九寨”;那里不像黄山、九华山那样名满天下,游客也没那么多,因此保持了一份难得的清静与天然。这就是牯牛降景区。

牯牛降景区位于安徽省池州市石台县与黄山市祁门县交界处,景区内有着安徽南部三大高山(黄山、清凉峰、牯牛降)之一的牯牛降。牯牛降景区距石台县城22公里,交通非常便捷。

牯牛降东倚黄山、西接庐山、北邻九华,因地处黄山余脉,又名为“西黄山”,以雄、奇、险、秀著称,山岳风光秀美绮丽。境内有36大峰、72小峰,36大岔、72小岔。《江南通志》记载,黄山有三十六垣,与歙之黄山相峙,其最高者古牛岗可望匡庐。可见,牯牛降在古代就小有名气。

牯牛降得名源于老子。相传,老子曾骑一头大青牛传授教义,途经此地。为降服一只名为鬿雀的怪鸟,青牛化而为石,因山形酷似一头牯牛从天而降,故名。

那么,牯牛降又是如何形成的呢?据地质学家研究发现,牯牛降约在8.5亿年前的雪峰造山运动中,使其主体抬起,结束海侵历史,在距今约2亿年逐步形成的中生代印支运动中,使牯牛降的北部也抬起,与其主体融为一体,并有花岗闪长岩体侵入。后又经燕山运动、喜马拉雅山运动,成为皖南一座壮丽的大山。

牯牛降总面积280平方公里,划入地质公园面积110平方公里,大部分景区尚未开发,非常原生态。牯牛降有着主峰景区、灵山景区、双龙谷景区、龙门景区、观音堂景区等五大景区。其中前四个皆位于石台县境内,观音堂景区位于祁门县境内。

一踏进牯牛降,迎面扑来的清爽空气让我们惊喜不已。牯牛降远离城市,让人萌生一种“山中方一日,世间已千年”的感觉。这里的空气通透得让人恍入仙境,流连忘返,不忍移步,不自觉的让身体的每一个细胞去感受牯牛降空气的亲吻。

牯牛降深谷幽溪众多,各种树木组成的原始森林,葛藤攀绕,虬枝兀现,万木向天竞自由。于是在林间小径里小心翼翼地穿行着。景区内有着曲折层叠、落差不一的瀑布,以及遍布河谷的奇石,让人目不暇接、流连忘返。

牯牛降气候温暖适宜,阳光柔和,负离子含量每立方厘米超8万个,是个名副其实的天然大氧吧。

进入景区,让人神清气爽。久居城市的我们,在这样的原始森林里,仿佛羁绊笼中的鸟儿飞还大自然,无比自由和惬意。于是闭上双眼,在大氧吧里畅快地呼吸。大山里的空气甜润润的,简直甜到了心坎里。

牯牛降山高林密,保存着较为完整的天然森林植被,是我国东部中亚热带常绿阔叶林带的重要典型地区之一,是“华东最后一片原始森林”。

在牯牛降,曾发现大量曾经生活在距今约7000万至200万以前的第三纪和第四纪早期的古老动植物种类。

在牯牛降,据说这里曾发现过第三纪以前的孑遗树种杉木、红豆杉、三尖杉等,鹅掌楸、永瓣藤、枫香、马尾松、山苍子、望春花、香樟、甜槠、青冈等名贵树木随处可见,林中弥漫着树木散发出的清香味。因此,牯牛降又被誉为“华东地区动植物基因库”、“绿色自然博物馆”。

据不完全统计,牯牛降有各类植物230科、726属、1348种,其中有国家重点保护的植物13种、动物29种。其间不乏梅花鹿、苏门羚(土四不象)、黑麂、云豹、短尾猴、猕猴、小灵猫、水獭、白鹇、白劲长尾雉、鸳鸯、猫头鹰等国家重点保护动物。

牯牛降主峰牯牛大岗,位于石台县大演乡新农村严家组辖内,海拔1727.6米,相对高差达1694米,为安徽省南部第三大高峰,尚未开发开放,有“未开拓的黄山”之称。

在数千年的时间里,牯牛降人迹罕至,鲜有人造访,一直保持着最原始的姿态,连绵大山中块砖片瓦难寻。为数不多的人文景观就是坐落在山脚下的严家古村。

在上个世纪以前,严家古村一直隐居在深山中,交通闭塞几乎与世隔绝,当地的村民也一直过着日出而作,日落而息的生活。也正因为如此,严家村至今还居住着东汉著名隐士严子陵的后裔,村子里典型的徽州民居古建筑保存完好,村中还有老磨坊、古祠堂等。

在牯牛降的日子里,时间都会变得悠闲、轻松而又漫长。口渴时,喝一杯村民从山上采摘的茶叶润舌;累时,便端坐在峭壁上的观景亭中,静静享受着从大山深处穿行百里的清凉山风。

这个五一,不凡带上亲朋好友,一起来皖南秘境牯牛降享受美好的假期吧!

文/图 纳兰小鱼

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